Last Updated on : 2022-08-25 10:24:53download
The Radio Equipment Directive 2014/53/EU (RED) is used for CE marking. The European Union (EU) announced this directive based on the CE Decision 768/2008/EC on May 22, 2014. RED 2014/53/ EU replaces the original EU Radio Equipment Directive R&TTE-D 1999/5/EC. Since June 13, 2017, only radio devices that have been accredited based on Directive RED 2014/53/EU are allowed to be sold in the EU market. The new directive is used to clarify the scope of spectrum use and improve spectrum utilization. This simplifies the process for member countries to implement regulations and conduct market monitoring. Radio products must be tested and approved in compliance with Directive RED 2014/53/EU and require CE marking before they can be legally sold in EU countries.
The Low Voltage Directive 2014/35/EU (LVD) ensures the safe use of low-voltage equipment. This directive applies to electrical equipment that uses AC voltage from 50V to 1,000V or DC voltage from 75V to 1,500V. This directive provides all safety rules for this type of equipment. For example, the directive specifies the protection measures against dangers that are caused by mechanical reasons. The design and structure of the equipment must ensure safe use in normal conditions or faulty conditions according to the intended purpose.
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). The EMC standards require that systems or equipment must work as expected in an electromagnetic environment, and do not cause interference to other systems and equipment.
EMC standards involve electromagnetic interference (EMI) and electromagnetic susceptibility (EMS). EMI indicates the electromagnetic noise that is generated by equipment when it implements required features. The electromagnetic noise affects the normal functioning of other systems. EMS indicates the capability of equipment that can be protected from the surrounding electromagnetic impact when it implements required features. EMC is an important item for certification and testing. It is involved in different standards, such as the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Directive 2014/30/EU.
The China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment (CNAS). It is a national accreditation agency that is approved and authorized by the National Certification and Accreditation Administration of the People’s Republic of China in accordance with the Regulations of the People’s Republic of China on Certification and Accreditation. The CNAS is responsible for the accreditation of institutions such as certification agencies, laboratories, and inspection agencies. The CNAS is an agency that merges the former China National Accreditation Board (CNAB) and the former China National Accreditation Board for Laboratories (CNAL). The CNAS evaluates and supervises the management and activities of certification organizations, such as certification agencies, laboratories, and inspection agencies. It checks whether each certification organization is capable of required certification services, such as certification, testing, verification, and inspection. It also confirms the authority of certifications.
The China Inspection Body and Laboratory Mandatory Approval (CMA). The metrological administration departments at the provincial level or higher of the people’s governments provide this comprehensive certification and evaluation of the testing capabilities and reliability for testing institutions. The CMA certification is conducted in accordance with the provisions that are specified in the Metrology Law of the People’s Republic of China. This certification is intended for all product quality supervision and inspection agencies and laboratories that provide notarization data. For example, product quality supervision and inspection centers, environmental testing centers, and disease prevention and control centers require CMA certification. The inspection agency that has obtained the CMA certificate is allowed to use the CMA mark on an inspection report. An inspection report with the CMA mark provides the legal evidence that applies to product quality evaluation, achievement appraisal, and judicial appraisal.
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) was established in 1906. It is the earliest international electrotechnical standardization organization in the world. The IEC is responsible for international standardization in the fields of electrical engineering and electronic engineering. IEC standards are recognized worldwide.
The IEC is intended to:
The CE certification or CE marking is used to certify that specific products meet the essential requirements of EU directives. It also accredits that the products have passed the conformity assessment procedure or obtained the Declaration of Conformity. A CE mark has become a pass for products to be legally sold in the EU market. EU directives require that each product must obtain CE certification and be attached with a CE mark before it is allowed to enter the EU market. If an unqualified product is found in the market, it must be withdrawn from the market. The products that violate the CE certification regulations multiple times will be restricted or prohibited from entering the EU market or be forced to exit the market.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) was established based on the Communications Act in 1934. It is an independent Federal regulatory agency responsible to Congress of the United States. The FCC regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable. The FCC’s mandated jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the territories of the United States. To ensure life and property safety in the use of radio and wired communication products, the FCC’s Office of Engineering and Technology provides technical support for the FCC and takes charge of equipment approval. Most radio application products, communication products, and digital products require FCC approval before they can be legally sold in the United States. The FCC investigates and studies different stages of products to find the optimal solutions to safety problems. The FCC is also involved in the testing of radio devices and aircraft.
The China Compulsory Certification (CCC) marking. It is a product conformity assessment system that is implemented by the Chinese government in accordance with laws and regulations. It is intended to protect consumers’ personal safety and national security and improve product quality management. The General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China (AQSIQ) and the National Certification and Accreditation Administration of the People’s Republic of China (CNCA) jointly issued the Regulations for Compulsory Product Certification on December 3, 2001. The regulations are intended to implement compulsory product certification for 132 products of 19 categories based on unified catalogs, unified standards and assessment procedures, unified marks, and unified fees. Therefore, the original China Commodity Inspection Bureau (CCIB) certification and the China Commission for Conformity Certification of Electrical Equipment (CCEE) certification are replaced by the CCC regulations.
The State Radio Regulation of China (SRRC) is a compulsory certification that is required by the State Radio Regulatory Commission of the People’s Republic of China. Since June 1, 1999, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) of China has mandated that all radio component products must obtain the radio type approval certification before they can be legally sold and used in China. The State Radio Monitoring Center (SRMC) of China, formerly known as the State Radio Regulation Committee (SRRC), is the only organization in mainland China that is authorized to test and certify products and provide radio type approvals. China has assigned special frequency ranges to different types of radio transmission devices. The frequencies outside the specified ranges are not allowed to be used in China. All radio transmission devices that are legally sold or used in China are assigned specific frequencies. In addition, specific requirements apply to certain radio transmission devices. For example, all the following requirements must be met in some cases: radio type approvals, CCC regulations, and/or network access licenses that are issued by the MIIT.
The National Communications Commission (NCC) is a regulatory agency in Taiwan, China to improve the development of communications in Taiwan, China. This agency takes charge of frequency management, radio wave detection, network domain names and websites, and international exchanges and cooperation in the communications field. The communication and information devices must be assigned the NCC certification before they can be legally sold and used in Taiwan, China. The NCC involves the following types of devices: public switched telephone network (PSTN) devices, public land mobile network (PLMN) devices, Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) devices, and low-power radio-frequency devices.
The Korea Communications Commission (KCC) certification is a compulsory certification for information, telecommunications, and radio frequency products in the South Korean market. The KCC certification involves electromagnetic compatibility testing, telecommunications testing, and radio frequency testing. The KCC authorizes the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) to issue the KCC certificate. Since January 1, 2011, the original KCC logo is changed to the Korea Certification (KC) logo. Therefore, the KCC certification and KC certification use the same certification logo. In addition, a KCC ID is added to the bottom of each KCC logo. Since July 1, 2018, the EMC certificate IDs in Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) applications only start with
R. However, the earlier certificate IDs that start with
MSIP are still valid. On December 5, 2017, the RRA issued a revision announcement that each KC certificate ID starts with
R, instead of
MSIP, and has a total of 14 digits. After the revision, the certificate ID supports uppercase and lowercase letters and underlines.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) is the agency of the Government of Japan and is responsible to regulate radio frequency and telecommunications devices.
Japan Radio Law: The production, sales, and operation of wireless devices in Japan must comply with the technical regulations of the Japan Radio Law. The Japan Radio Law is also known as TELEC certification. Telecommunications Business Law: the conformity certification for telecommunications devices in Japan. All products that are connected to public telephone or telecommunications networks must be assigned this certification. This certification is also known as the JATE certification.
According to the Electrical Appliance and Material Safety Law, a total of 456 products must comply with the PSE law before they can enter the Japanese market. These products are classified into two categories: category A and category B. A total of 116 types of specified electrical appliances and materials belong to category-A products. This type of product must be attached with the diamond PSE mark. A total of 341 types of non-specific electrical appliances and materials belong to category-B products. This type of product must be self-declared or certified by a third party and attached with the circle PSE mark.
The Voluntary Control Council for Interference by Information Technology Equipment (VCCI) mark is an EMC mark in Japan and is managed by the VCCI. VCCI certification is non-compulsory. However, the information technology products that are legally sold in Japan must pass VCCI certification in most cases. Manufacturers must apply to become a member of the VCCI before they can use the VCCI mark.
ANATEL is the regulatory agency for telecommunications and radio devices in Brazil. Before you can get the approval of ANATEL, you must apply for the Certificate of Conformity that is issued by a Designated Certification Body (OCD) and prepare the required documents for approval. ANATEL is intended for radio frequency or telecommunication devices. ANATEL regulates the testing, electromagnetic compatibility, and safety standards of radio frequency and telecommunication devices. Wireless portable products must pass the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) testing if they are intended for use with a working distance less than 20 cm and output power greater than 20 mW (13 dBm).
The Regulatory Compliance Mark (RCM) is the compliance mark for electrical and electronic products in Australia and New Zealand. These products must comply with the national standards of both countries before they can enter the markets. The products that involve radio communications and telecommunications, electromagnetic radiation, electromagnetic compatibility, and safety requirements are regulated by the RCM. Local manufacturers, importers, or distributors must apply for the RCM certification with the valid certificate of conformity that is issued by Australia or New Zealand. The products that pass the RCM certification must be printed with the RCM logo.
The Innovation, Science and Economic Development (ISED) Canada certification. This certification was originally known as the Industry Canada (IC) certification. Since 2016, the IC certification has been renamed the ISED Canada certification. This certification is used to accredit electronic and electrical products before they can enter the Canadian market. Multiple types of products are supported, including broadcast and television equipment, information technology equipment, radio equipment, telecommunications equipment, and engineering and medical equipment. This certification is similar to the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) certification. Each certified product is assigned an ISED Number in the format of
The Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive. This directive is a mandatory standard that is established by the EU. The RoHS Directive has been implemented since July 1, 2006. It is used to standardize the material and process standards of electronic and electrical products and make the products more conducive to human health and environmental protection. The RoHS Directive is intended to eliminate the following substances in electronic and electrical products: lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. It also stipulates that the products cannot contain more than 0.01% of cadmium.
Note: PBDE indicates polybrominated diphenyl ethers, rather than polybrominated diphenyl ethers.
The regulation on the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). This regulation is a chemical regulatory system that has been implemented by the EU since June 1, 2007. REACH is a regulatory proposal that involves the safety of chemical production, trade, and use. The regulation aims to protect human health and environmental safety, maintain and improve the competitiveness of the EU chemical industry, and promote the ability to develop innovative non-toxic and harmless compounds. This can prevent market fragmentation, increase transparency in the use of chemicals, promote non-animal experiments, and achieve sustainable social development.
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