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Update Firmware

Last Updated on : 2022-11-28 09:26:02download

This topic describes how to deploy full or incremental updates to devices.

Background

For the MCU SDK or TuyaOS based devices that have been delivered, you can deploy firmware updates to them over the air (OTA) without flashing firmware.

The microcontroller board must support OTA firmware updates.

Applicability

This feature is used to deploy firmware updates to end devices via OTA.

Terms

Term Explanation
Custom firmware The custom firmware that a developer uploads to the Tuya IoT Development Platform. It is maintained by the developer.
Tuya firmware The firmware officially provided and maintained by Tuya.
Manufacturer firmware The firmware that a developer of the Tuya IoT Development Platform obtains through OEM Product or Copy Product. It is maintained by the firmware manufacturer.
Firmware type There are three types of firmware: production firmware, user area firmware, and firmware updates.
  • Production firmware and user area firmware: Used by Tuya’s manufacturer to flash the firmware. If you choose firmware flashing by Tuya, these two types of firmware must be uploaded to the Tuya IoT Development Platform.
  • Firmware updates: Used to deploy OTA firmware updates, applying to all products.
Firmware owner The developer account that has permission to manage the firmware.
  • Case 1: For firmware created during product creation, the account space to which the current product (PID) belongs owns the firmware.
    • Firmware created under My Products is owned by the space that is currently logged in.
    • Firmware created under Customer Products is owned by the space to which the creator of the current product and firmware belongs. The customer products can be obtained through OEM Product, Copy Product, or Space Authorization.
  • Case 2: For firmware created in Firmware Management, the space that is currently logged in owns the firmware.
Tuya standard chip The chips that are adapted to Tuya’s host program. You can use Tuya’s host to flash firmware to Tuya standard chips.
Channel ID Used for firmware updates only. The channel ID is used to identify types of firmware to perform updates on different firmware.
Canary release Canary release is a development strategy in which a new version of firmware is deployed to a small subset of users first, and the base version remains deployed for normal operations on the same stage. Once the new version is accepted, the update is rolled out to the rest of the users.

Prerequisites

You have created at least one product. For more information, see Create Products.

Procedure

Full updates

There are three cases to update the firmware.

  • Case 1: Update Tuya firmware or manufacturer firmware that has been enabled.
  • Case 2: Update custom firmware.
  • Case 3: Update firmware on TuyaLink-based devices.

Procedure

Update Firmware

Case 1: Update Tuya firmware or manufacturer firmware that has been enabled.

  1. Log in to the Tuya IoT Development Platform.

  2. In the left navigation bar, choose Product > Device > Firmware Update.

    For Tuya firmware or manufacturer firmware, an update can be deployed only when a new firmware version is provided by Tuya or the manufacturer.

    Update Firmware

  3. Change to the target product and select the firmware.

    Update Firmware

  4. Click New Update Deployment and complete the required settings.

    Update Firmware

    Parameter classification Parameter Description
    Basic Information Target Product The product that the current firmware is associated with.
    Firmware Name The name of the current firmware.
    Firmware Version The firmware version to update to. Only the firmware version that has not been deployed for an update can be selected.
    Critical Version Specify whether the current firmware version is a critical version.
    • Yes: A firmware version that users must update to.
    • No: A firmware version that users can skip.
    Upgrade Information Update Method
    • Update notification: Users receive a firmware update notification on the app and choose whether to install updates.
    • Forced update: Users receive a firmware update notification on the app and have no option but to update the firmware.
    • Check for updates: Users will not receive a firmware update notification on the app, but need to manually check for new updates.
    Auto Update Automatic update is determined by the auto update setting on the Tuya IoT Development Platform and on the app together.
    Note: One product may have different firmware, so make sure to select the correct firmware and firmware version.
    • Off: Turn off automatic update. The update method you selected will be performed.
    • On: Turn on automatic update. The update will be installed in either of three methods, namely update notification, forced update, and check for updates.
    Description Enter the description of the update in Chinese and English. The description will be displayed on the app.
    Remarks Enter the remarks about the update.
    Publishing Scope Settings Update Version Enter one or more firmware versions to update from. All versions earlier than the firmware version set in Basic Information are selected by default.
    Update Region The countries or regions where the firmware update will be rolled out. For China, you can select a specific city. All regions are selected by default.
  5. After the configuration is set, click OK. A record will be generated.

    Update Firmware

  6. Click Common Verification Device to add devices under test (DUTs). This allows you to add a bunch of devices used for test purposes. Each time you perform a test, you can quickly select DUTs from the list.

    Update Firmware

    • You can select the data center where the device is deployed in the top right corner of the page.

    • You can add devices by using the app account. After your app account is verified, under your account, all the devices associated with the PID will be added to the allowlist.

      Update Firmware

      For security purposes, your app account must be verified first.

  7. Verify firmware update deployment.

    1. Click Verify in the Firmware Update column. You can verify deployment to different data centers by changing the data center in the top right corner of the page.

      Update Firmware

    2. You can add a DUT by selecting a device from the allowlist or by entering a device ID. If you choose Add by Device ID, the firmware update will be delivered to the specified device.

      Update Firmware

    3. Click Verify Update to check the result.

      Update Firmware
  8. Deploy an OTA firmware update.

    After successful verification, you can click Release to deploy an OTA firmware update to devices. Due to the iteration of the firmware update feature, the legacy release process is also available.

    New OTA firmware update release

    1. Click Release to enter the deployment process.
    2. In Release Rule Settings, you can choose Grey Released to roll out the firmware update to a specified percentage of devices in a specific data center.

    You can click Switch to Old Process to use the legacy release process. The legacy process will be retired in the future. Tuya will notify developers of such changes beforehand.

    • Data centers are isolated from each other. You can switch to another data center and deliver the firmware update to that data center.

    • Grayscale by proportion: Allows you to specify the percentage allocation of devices that will be exposed to the update. In the first rounds of deployment, it is recommended to set a small proportion, such as 5%. You can then examine the results, and if things go smoothly, gradually increase deployment to 100% of devices.

    • Pause: You can pause and resume the deployment as needed.

    • Key Metrics: Give you an overview of the deployment.

      • Total Number of Upgradable Devices

      • Number of Specified Devices to Update

      • Number of Devices Performing Updates

      • Number of Successfully Updated Devices

        Update Firmware

    • Data Analytics: Shows the distribution of update status and update installation.

    • Data Trend: Shows the number of devices that initiate the update as well as those that install the update successfully.

    • Details of Updated Devices: Allows you to check the update details by device ID.

    Legacy OTA firmware update release

    1. Click Release to enter the deployment process.

    2. Click Switch to Old Process.

      Update Firmware
    3. After you click Gray released or Full amount released, a request for releasing an update will be submitted. Tuya will verify firmware security. If your firmware is verified, Tuya will deliver the firmware update to the target devices as you requested.

      Update Firmware
      • After the firmware update is verified on the DUT, you can deploy an OTA firmware update.
      • You can deploy the update to different data centers.
      • Canary Release and All Release are supported, and release time can be set. For canary release, one or more regions and versions can be selected, and the quantity can be defined.
      • After you submit a deployment request, your firmware will be reviewed within 24 hours. Consider the review time when you schedule the deployment. If your firmware has been reviewed, there is no review process any more.

Case 2: Update custom firmware.

Only the owner of the custom firmware can create a firmware version.

  1. Log in to the Tuya IoT Development Platform.

  2. In the left navigation bar, choose Product > Device > Firmware Update.

  3. Select firmware with My Custom Firmware in the Firmware Source column.

    Update Firmware

  4. Click New Update Deployment to set update rules.

    • Firmware Version: Select an existing firmware version.

    • Add Firmware Version: Click this button to create a firmware version if no firmware version is available or a firmware version has been deployed.

      Parameter Description
      Basic Information You can upload a firmware version to update to. If this new version is planned for production, both production firmware and user area firmware can be uploaded.
      Production This configuration is used for production and authorization.
      • Run Mode: According to the SPI Flash mode, you can select QIO for the Tuya modules by default. This option only applies to firmware flashed by Tuya.
      • Country Code: It is supported by default.
      • FFS Capability: It is supported by default.
      Update Firmware
  5. Click Only Save or Save & Enable.

    After you complete the basic information and upload the firmware, the firmware is not enabled by default. To update the firmware via OTA, click Save & Enabled.

    You can set the Update Deployment Scope to specify which product this firmware update applies to.

    Update Firmware

  6. Deploy a firmware update.

    1. Click Update on the Firmware Version Management page, or in the left-side navigation pane, choose Product > Device > Firmware Update and select the firmware.

      Update Firmware
    2. Select the target product, enter the parameters, and then click OK.

  7. Follow Steps 6, 7, and 8 in Case 1 above to deploy an OTA firmware update.

Case 3: Update firmware on TuyaLink-based devices.

  1. Your product is developed with the TuyaLink solution and uses the Open Protocol.

    Update Firmware

  2. Choose Firmware Management. Click Add Firmware. Complete the required configuration and upload a firmware version.

  3. Save and enable the firmware version.

    Update Firmware

  4. The next steps are the same as Case 1 and Case 2.

    TuyaLink-based devices do not support incremental updates.

Incremental update

OTA firmware update allows you to update a device remotely. Typically, a full update package is sent to the target device for installation. A large package requires more bandwidth for transmission and more memory for storage. For resource-constrained devices, such as NB-IoT and Cat.1, the smaller incremental updates make OTA firmware updates more feasible.

Applicability

This feature applies to firmware that integrates with Tuya’s incremental update SDK. NB-IoT and Cat.1 devices are the typical use cases.
Note: Matter device update is currently supported

Terms

Term Explanation
Target Version The firmware version to update to.
Earlier Version The firmware version to update from.
File to Build Incremental Package The file used for incremental calculation. This file can be recognized by the incremental algorithm to compare it with another firmware version.
Incremental Package The incremental update package is generated based on the target version as well as the File to Build Incremental Package. It is the update package delivered to devices for installation.

Procedure

Before performing an incremental update, make sure the firmware supports incremental updates and has the File to Build Incremental Package.

Step 1: Add a firmware version

Choose Product > Device > Firmware Management. Find the target firmware and click Details in the Operation column, and then click Add Firmware Version on the page that appears.

Update Firmware

Step 2: Upload the File to Build Incremental Package

Enter the required information and upload the file in the File to Build Incremental Package field.

Update Firmware

Step 3: Build an incremental package

  1. In the Firmware Version Management section, click Incremental Package in the Operation column.

    Update Firmware

  2. Click Build Incremental Package.

    Update Firmware

  3. The system generates an incremental package. If the File to Build Incremental Package is not uploaded for the earlier version, an incremental update cannot be performed.

    Update Firmware

Step 4: Build the firmware

In the Firmware Version Management section, click Enable. Then, the firmware version becomes Enabled.

Update Firmware

Step 5: Go to Firmware Update and add the update deployment

  1. Select Product > Device > Firmware Update, and click New Update Deployment.

  2. Enable Incremental Update to allow the target devices to download the incremental package.

    Update Firmware

  3. Check the available incremental package.

    Update Firmware
  4. Click OK to generate a firmware update record. The target devices can then download the incremental package. The specific process depends on the update method supported by the devices. The full firmware package can still be obtained for an update.

Step 6: Verify the update

The steps are the same as Cases 1 and 2.

Step 7: Deploy the update

The steps are the same as Cases 1 and 2.

FAQs

Why can’t I add a version for my custom firmware?

Your account does not own the target firmware or your account is not authorized for the OTA firmware update. After your account is authorized by the firmware owner, you can add new versions for the firmware.

Why can’t I find the firmware key in firmware management?

Check whether the firmware key was created with the current account. If not, the account does not have permission to view the firmware key.

Can devices that have no location information receive an OTA firmware update?

  • For devices in mainland China: If the app is not allowed to access the location, the device connected to this app may not receive OTA firmware updates.

  • For devices outside mainland China: The country code of a user’s app account is used as the endpoint to receive OTA firmware updates. If the country code does not fall within the specified target regions, the device may not receive OTA firmware updates.

Reference

For more information, see Manage Custom Firmware.