Docs

Terms

Last Updated on : 2020-07-22 01:38:33download

This topic describes the commonly used terms on the Tuya platform.

Hardware development

Product intelligence

TermDefinition
DeviceA device is any piece of equipment made for a particular purpose, especially a mechanical or electrical one. During long-term use, a device keeps its original form and functions unchanged.
Generally, a device refers to a product on the Tuya platform, and has the same meaning as hardware.
HardwareHardware refers to physical components and devices that you can see and touch. Generally, it refers to products.
C lightA cool lighting product (C light) emits white light with adjustable brightness.
CW lightA cool warm lighting product (CW light) emits cool warm white light with adjustable brightness and color temperatures.
RGB lightThe red, green, and blue (RGB) color model is an industry standard color model in which red light, green light, and blue light overlay in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors.
An RGB lighting product has three adjustable light colors.
The model can reproduce almost all colors that the human eye can perceive, and it is one of the most widely used color models.
An RGB value refers to brightness, which is represented with an integer. Each of the red, green, and blue color channels has values of 0 to 255, indicating grayscale levels. An RGB system can have 16,777,216 (256 × 256 × 256 = 16777216) possible colors. The RGB system is also called 16 million colors or 24-bit color (224).
RGBC lightAn RGBC lighting product has adjustable light colors and brightness. RGBC stands for red, green, blue, and cool white.
RGBCW lightAn RGBCW lighting product has adjustable light colors, brightness, and color temperatures. RGBCW stands for red, green, blue, cool white, and warm white.
HSVHue, saturation, and value (HSV) is a color model designed to obtain color perception through 3D coordinates.
IPCAn Internet Protocol camera (IPC) is a new generation of camera that integrates typical camera with network technology.
SoCA system on chip (SoC) device does not have a microcontroller unit (MCU). The control programs are written into Soc or the module.
OSDAn on-screen display (OSD) is an on-screen menu for adjusting the display. After you press the Menu button, the screen pops up a rectangular menu of the display. You can view and adjust working options of the display, such as the color, mode, and geometric shape, to achieve optimal display status.
ModuleA module is a component that is integrated into an embedded electronic system to connect the system to a network (such as the Internet or Ethernet). Currently, Tuya Smart provides the following modules for network connections in different modes:
  • Wi-Fi module
  • GPRS module
  • Bluetooth Mesh module
  • Wi-Fi and BLE dual module
  • Zigbee module
  • Sub-G module
  • NB-IoT module
Data pointA data point (DP) represents a smart device function.
  • Tuya Smart abstracts each function point into a data point. DPs are defined in different types, such as Boolean, enumeration, and numeric.
  • DPs have read and write attributes. For example, a 2-way switch has two Boolean DPs, and each DP has either a True or False value, which is readable and writable.
  • To read is to obtain the current value of the switch, and to write is to change the current value of the switch.

Communication

TermDefinition
GatewayBluetooth Mesh devices cannot directly access the network, so a gateway is required, which has both Bluetooth communication and network connection capabilities. Through the gateway, local Bluetooth Mesh devices can upload data to the cloud and receive data from the cloud, and thus communicate with the cloud. In addition, a gateway supports the lighting, socket, and alarm functions.
ZigbeeZigbee is a short-range, simple, low-power, low-data-rate, low-cost and two-way wireless communication technology. It applies to short-range, low-power, and low-rate data transfer between various electronic devices, periodic data transfer, intermittent data transfer, and data transfer at a longer interval.
Z-WaveZ-Wave is a wireless communication protocol developed by Zensys, a Danish company. Z-Wave Alliance members are smart home product manufacturers throughout the globe. Over 160 of them are world-renowned companies, and their product application scope has almost covered all the countries and regions in the world.
NB-loTNarrowband Internet of Things (NB-loT) is a cellular technology that limits the bandwidth to about 180 kHz. It can be used directly on a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), or Long Term Evolution (LTE) network to reduce the cost and enable smooth upgrade. NB-IoT ensures long battery life and efficient connections of devices that have high network requirements.
As an emerging technology in the IoT field, NB-IoT supports cellular data connection of low-power devices in Wide Area Network (WAN), which is also known as Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN). NB-IoT has four advantages, including low power consumption, wide coverage, mass connection, and low cost.
LoRaLong Range (LoRa) is a physical layer or wireless modulation to create long range WAN connections. LoRa technology is based on Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) modulation technology, and supports a much longer communication range than traditional frequency-shift keying (FSK) technology. It features long transmission distance and strong anti-interference capabilities. CSS has been widely used in military and space communications.
eMTCEnhanced machine-type communication (eMTC) is an IoT technology based on the LTE protocol that supports mobility and fast locating. The cost of an eMTC chip is about 25% of that of a CAT 1 chip, whereas the eMTC rate is four times the GPRS rate.
SIGThe Bluetooth Special Interest Group (Bluetooth SIG) is a Bluetooth standards organization. Only Bluetooth SIG certified devices can use the Bluetooth word mark and logo.
Bluetooth MeshBluetooth Mesh is a communication method that uses the Mesh protocol based on traditional Bluetooth.
Bluetooth Mesh devices do not have subordination relations, and they communicate with each other in broadcast mode. For example, after a mobile phone on a Bluetooth Mesh network sends an instruction, all Bluetooth Mesh devices within 10 meters away from the mobile phone can receive the instruction and send it to other devices within 10 meters away from them. In this way, the complete instruction can eventually reach the destination, and no data loss occurs. Theoretically, Bluetooth Mesh supports more devices on a network than Wi-Fi.
Bluetooth Mesh protocolThe Bluetooth Mesh protocol is a many-to-many (M2M) communication protocol based on Bluetooth. Devices that support the Bluetooth Mesh protocol also support Bluetooth 4.0 and 5.0 protocols. Bluetooth Mesh devices can communicate with other devices that support Bluetooth 4.0, such as mobile phones and computers.
Mesh technology parameters
  • Transmission speed: 30 bytes/second.
  • Transmission distance: 10 meters for indoor transmission, and 30 meters for barrier-free transmission.
  • Number of devices in the network: more than 150 devices at present. Theoretically, there can be 65,000 devices in the network.
  • Bluetooth technology: standard Bluetooth Mesh protocol, and Telink protocol based on Bluetooth 4.0 in a few cases.
NFCNear-field communication (NFC) is a new technology that enables two devices (such as mobile phones) that are geographically near each other to exchange data.
NFC is rooted in radio-frequency identification (RFID) and interconnection technologies. An NFC chip has a contactless reader, contactless smart card, and point-to-point communication functions. NFC-enabled mobile terminals apply to scenarios such as mobile payment, e-ticketing, access control, mobile identity authentication, and anti-counterfeiting.
RFIDRadio-frequency identification (RFID) is a communication technology or electronic tag that is used to identify specific objects and read and write data through radio signals. The identifying system and identified objects do not need to establish mechanical or optical connections.
P2PPeer-to-peer (P2P) networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers. P2P is a networking or network type that is formed by peer computational models at the application layer.
RTPThe Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a network protocol for end-to-end (E2E) real-time data transmission. For example, delivering interactive audio and video or analog data over multicast or unicast networks. RTP is widely used in communication and entertainment systems that involve streaming media, such as telephone, video conferencing, television services, and web-based push-to-talk features.
SocketA socket is an endpoint of a two-way communication link between two programs running on a network. A communication link involves at least two sockets, each of which is bound to a port number. In essence, a socket refers to an application programming interface (API) that is provided to programmers for network development during Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)/IP encapsulation. In this context, the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) provides a specific form of data encapsulation or display, and the socket enables network communication.
MQTTMessage Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) is a publish-subscribe-based messaging protocol that IBM has developed. MQTT supports all the platforms and can connect most IoT products to the external environment. It is used as a communication protocol for sensors and brakes. For example, developers can enable users to connect houses through Twitter.

Electronic circuit

TermDefinition
IO pin and GPIOPins on a general-purpose input/output (GPIO) are input and output channels.
PinA pin links the internal circuit of an integrated circuit (chip) to an external circuit. All pins of a chip form interfaces of the chip.
EPAn endpoint (EP) is a smart hardware device.
Control boardA control board is a circuit board. Its application scope is not as wide as that of circuit board, but it is more smart and automatic than general circuit board. Generally, only circuit boards with a control function are called control boards.
AC-DC power moduleAn AC-DC power module provides a constant current in the circuit. AC-DC power modules include dry cells, storage batteries, and DC generators.
InductanceWhen an electric current flows through a conductor, it creates an electromagnetic field around that conductor. Electromagnetic field ÷ current = inductance. Formula: L=phi/i. The unit is henry (H). An inductor is typically used with a capacitor in an LC filtering circuit. Capacitors block DC while allowing AC to pass, whereas inductances block AC while allowing DC to pass.
LDOA low-dropout linear regulator (LDO) is a DC linear voltage regulator that can regulate the output voltage even when the supply voltage is very close to the output voltage.
Demo boardA demo board is a circuit board that assists embedded system development.
PCBA printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electrical or electronic components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.
PCBA/PCB'APrinted circuit board assembly (PCBA) is the overall process of placing components onto a blank PCB using surface-mount technology (SMT), and then through-hole mounting dual in-line packages (DIPs) into the PCB. Developers in China usually use PCBA, whereas the standard spelling is PCB'A in Europe and America.
Onboard antennaAn onboard antenna is a part of a PCB that receives and transmits wireless signals.
Antenna gainAntenna gain is the ratio of the power density of the actual antenna signal to the ideal radiation unit at the same point in space, given equal input power. Antenna gain quantitatively describes how well an antenna converts input power to radio waves headed in a specified direction.

Embedded development

TermDefinition
MCUA microcontroller unit (MCU) is the central controller of a micro-board, with very high integration, rich functions, very high response speed, reliability and wide application field. Devices with MCU have their own control boards, which define the product functions. Modules connect to control boards to implement connection functions.
SDKA software development kit (SDK) contains the documents, examples, and tools required to develop software. Tuya provides free SDKs to encourage developers to use their systems or languages.
FirmwareFirmware refers to programs written into the erasable programmable read-only memory (EROM) or electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM). Firmware drives programs embedded in devices, for example, CD-ROM and CD-R. Firmware enables operating systems to drive devices based on standard device drivers. Firmware is the software that completes the most basic bottom-layer tasks of a system.
OTAOver-the-air (OTA) upgrade is a firmware upgrade method which Tuya supports. Firmware upgrades can be wireless or wired. Firmware over-the-air (FOTA) is a wireless upgrade method of firmware.
Serial portA serial port, also known as a serial communications port (generally referred to as a COM port), is an extended port that uses the serial communications mode. A serial port transfers one bit at a time. It features simple communication paths. A pair of transmission cables, for example, a pair of telephone lines, can enable two-way communications between two serial ports, greatly reducing communications costs. Serial ports specifically focus on long-range communication but with a slow transmission speed.
UARTA universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) is a computer hardware device that converts parallel input signals to serial output signals. A UART is usually integrated into other communication interface devices, such as independent modular chips or peripherals integrated in microprocessors.
Serial communication protocolSerial communication protocol enables a serial port to transmit and receive data on a per-bit basis. Although serial communication is slower than parallel communication in which data is exchanged by byte, a serial port can use one link to send data, and another link to receive data at the same time. Common serial communication protocols include RS-232, RS-422, and RS-485.
RTCA real-time clock (RTC) is a device that is independent of the system timer. It is used to set the system clock and provide an alarm or periodic timer.
ArduinoArduino is the most popular open-source hardware in the world, an excellent hardware development platform, and the tendency of hardware development. With simple development, Arduino enables developers to pay more attention to creative ideas and implementation, complete their project development more quickly, reduce learning costs and shorten development cycles.

Cloud development

TermDefinition
NLPNatural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence (AI) concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data.
SaaSSoftware as a Service (SaaS) is a software distribution model in which a service provider hosts applications based on cloud computing infrastructure and makes them available to customers on clients, for example, browsers. Customers do not need to manage or control the cloud computing infrastructure, including the networks, servers, operating systems, and storage. All the cloud computing infrastructure is managed and operated by SaaS providers.
PaaSPlatform as a service (PaaS) is a cloud computing model in which the applications are developed or procured by customers through Java, Python, and .NET development languages, and service providers deploy the applications on the cloud computing infrastructure. Customers can control the deployed applications and configure the hosted environment where the applications run. They do not need to manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure, including the networks, servers, operating systems, and storage.
IaaSInfrastructure as a service (IaaS) is a service model in which customers can use all computing infrastructure resources, including the CPU, memory, storage, network, image, firewall, and other computing resources, to deploy and run any software, including operating systems and applications.
GDPRThe General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a European Union (EU) regulation on data protection and privacy for all individuals within the EU and the European Economic Area (EEA). It has high requirements for data protection, security, and standards compliance.
SSIDA service set identifier (SSID) divides a wireless local area network (WLAN) into several subnetworks that need independent identity verification. Only authenticated users can access the WLAN, preventing unauthorized access and ensuring network security.
AP isolationAs a computer mode, AP isolation is used to isolate connected PCs, ensuring user data security.
PBThe petabyte (PB) is a storage unit. One petabyte is equal to 1024 terabytes (TB).
PIDEach product created on the IoT Console of Tuya Smart has a unique product ID (PID). PID associates the product information, including the DPs, app control panel, and shipment information. If a product is compared to a person, PID is its identity card.
UUIDA universally unique identifier (UUID) is the SDK license and unique ID when you develop a smart product on the IoT Console of Tuya Smart. Authkey is the authentication key to register the device to the cloud, and UUID has a one-to-one mapping to the authkey. A UUID is 20 bits long, and an authkey contains 32 bits.
APIApplication programming interfaces (APIs) are predefined functions that enable application programs and developers to access the library based on software or hardware, without accessing the source code or understanding details about the internal operating mechanism.
Cloud APICloud APIs enable developers to use a cloud application programming interface which has a service delivered by cloud service providers.

Third-party connection

TermDefinition
WWAWorks with Alexa (WWA) certification is a paid service that Amazon provides to test, verify, and certify products of the partners based on its standards.
Amazon EchoAmazon Echo is a brand of smart speakers that Amazon has developed. Amazon Echo has three versions, including basic Echo Dot, standard Amazon Echo, and portable Amazon Tap. Similar to common Bluetooth speakers, the Echo speakers do not have a screen and only support the voice interaction mode.
Amazon AlexaAlexa is a cloud-based voice service of Amazon. Amazon Alexa-enabled Echo speakers allow you to use voice commands to interact with smart devices and acquire related services, including playing music, answers to questions, and setting alarms. At present, Alexa only supports the English language. Alexa serves as the brain of Echo. All input and output messages are processed by Alexa.
Alexa SkillAlexa Skills are third-party services of Alexa.
IFTTTIf This Then That (IFTTT) is a free web-based service platform that allows you to create chains of simple conditional statements for easier use. IFTTT mainly consists of three parts, including tasks, triggers, and actions.
Google HomeGoogle Home is a brand of smart voice-activated home speakers.
Google AssistantGoogle Assistant is an AI voice assistant that supports multiple languages and devices. It activates the audio interactions with Google Home speakers.
Google ActionGoogle Action is a development platform for the Google Assistant. It allows the third-party development of actions—applets for the Google Assistant that provide extended functionality.
Google MiniGoogle Mini is a Google Search appliance designed for businesses to set up a search engine.
HomeKitHomeKit is a smart home platform that Apple launched in 2014. HomeKit regards your home as a collection of smart home appliances, and allows you to manage smart home appliances based on homes, rooms, and zones. HomeKit supports common smart home protocols and secure pairing. It provides an open API for pairing and interconnections with mainstream smart home appliances, so you can use Siri to control mainstream smart home appliances.
Home AssistantHome Assistant is a Python-based open-source smart home system. It supports smart home devices of multiple brands, ensuring easy voice control and automation of devices. Home Assistant is intended primarily for individual developers or users, and is not commercially available.

Miscellaneous

TermDefinition
OEMAn original equipment manufacturer (OEM) is a company that produces parts and equipment that may be marketed by another manufacturer.
ODMAn original design manufacturer (ODM) is a company that designs and manufactures a product, as specified, that is eventually rebranded by another firm for sale. Alternatively, the design is modified slightly for production. The manufacturer that designs and manufactures products is called ODM, and the products are ODM products.
OBMAn original brand manufacturer (OBM) is typically a company that sells an entire product made by a second company or including a component from a second company sources as its own branded product.
MOQA minimum order quantity (MOQ) is the smallest number of products that you can order at a time.
AIArtificial intelligence (AI) is a new technology science for researching and developing the theories, methods, technologies, and application systems to mimic, extend and expand human intelligence. AI research includes robotics, speech recognition, image recognition, natural language processing, and expert systems.
AIoTThe Artificial Intelligence of Things (AIoT) is the combination of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies with the Internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure. AIoT can achieve more efficient IoT operations, improve human-machine interactions, and enhance data management and analytics.
Control panelA control panel is a UI that provides the control function. When you use the development solutions of Tuya Smart, it usually refers to the control panel in an App.
Click for services and help